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Sofoline is a chemical element with an atomic number of 14s, symbol So. It is a toxic red translucent liquid and is moderately reactive. Despite its toxicity, it has wide variety of applications, being an important reactant in manufacturing polymers, ceramics as well pesticides and raw material for synthesizing medical drugs.
At standard room temperature and pressure, sofoline is a red translucent liquid. It boils at 315.75 K (42.60 °C, 108.68 °F) to form a lime green gas and freeze at 138.91 K (−134.24 °C, −209.63 °F) to form a red translucent solid. The solid state is commonly known as red ice as it also have the bizarre property of lower density than its liquid state in addition to its transparency.
Sofoline is quite similar to water in many physical aspects except it has lower specific heat capacity, latent heat, less volatile and is toxic, thus it’s commonly known as toxic water or blood water.
Sofoline naturally exist as molecules of So5 with bond angles 108° resembling pentagons.
The electronegativity of Sofoline depends on the electronegativity of the element it bounds to. Therefore the bonds with So are usually pure covalent. This also permits sofoline to form compounds easily with most elements.
E.g. So5 + 10H2 → 5SoH4
The Sofoline ends of a molecule also has a high affinity towards the sofoline ends of another molecule, thus the molecules joined at these ends to form a disofoline(-So-So-) bond.
E.g. 2SoH4 → H4So-SoH4
Molecules with more than one So atom attached to them can polymerize by forming disofoline bonds between them.
E.g. nSoH4 → (-SoH4-)n
These properties make sofoline suitable for making polymers.
Sofoline is commonly found as So5 molecules with a thin bottom layer of So6. So6 is a colorless liquid with strong absorption in the infrared and is more reactive than the commonly found So5.
In sofoline vapor, usually So4 with trace of So3, which are green gas and pale yellow gas respectively. This gives the characteristic lime green color of sofoline vapor. So5 is unstable in the vapor phase and is converted into the above two So allotropes easily, though experimental conditions where So5 is allowed to vaporize without decomposition shows gaseous So5 is colorless.
Other So rings and even a polymeric phase are also known to exist at pressures of 60Pa or above.
Extensive structural allotropes analogous to diamond and graphite are rare and usually produced at labs as sofoline atoms tend to bond with each other, forming closed clusters and rings.
So has four naturally occurring isotopes, 28sSo (the most common: 81.26%), 29sSo (9.37%), 30sSo (5.77%), and 31sSo (3.60%). Other radioactive isotopes are also known.
Compounds of sofoline are diverse, with oxidation states ranging from 0 to +5. Sofoline is commonly found in the 0 state due to its variable electronegativity.
Sofoline dioxide (SoO2) is a colorless gas, formed when sofoline is exposed to pure oxygen.
So5 + 5O2 → SoO2
Sofoline reacts with alkalis to form sofoline hydroxide (So(OH)5), a pink solid which dissolves to give a pink strongly alkaline solution.
Sofoline phosphide (SoP3) is an explosive white solid while Sofoline nitride (SoN3) is a grey ceramic.
Sofoline also react readily with the halogens to form Sofoline halides. (SoXn, where X is a halogen and n ranges from 1 to 7) Owing to the variable electronegativity of sofoline, these compounds are stable, colorless and dense gases or powder.
Chlorosofolic acid (H4ClSo4) is a runny blue liquid which dissovles to give a strong acid.
H4ClSo4 + 4H2O → ClSo44- + 4H3O+
Sofoline forms various coordination complexes with metals and ligands, which has a variety of colors.
A wide variety of sofoline containing functional groups are found. The most important is the sofo group (R-So), which allows easy synthesis of polymers. Other important organic compounds are the Sofolinnes (R5So), Sofols (R-So-H), Sofolic acids (RSoOOH) and the Sofoethers (R1-So-R2)
Sofoline can bond with each other to form long chains, rings, branches etc. This allow sofoline to form diverse compounds analogous to the organic compounds formed by carbon, with all the carbon in the functional groups replaced by sofoline. The ability for sofoline to expand valancy allows more possible combinations than carbon.
Due to its reactivity, sofoline is rarely encountered as a free element, except on planets lack of oxygen such as Agist, it is present as lakes, rivers oceans on the surface and as a green haze in the atmosphere.
Sofoline is more commonly found in the form of soft yellow crystals known as lymonite (Silicon sofolide, SiSo) in the crust and Sofoline dioxide gas in the atmosphere of most terrestrial planets in the A-L universe.
Sofoline life on some planets is composed almost entirely of sofoline polymers and biomolecules.
Sofoline is detected in comets in the form of red ice. It is also detected in trace amount in the interstellar medium.
In the standard universe So loses its m charge and becomes silicon.
Sofoline was first identified by Maryl Marte in 1648 when she noticed a clear red liquid is formed on the surface of heated charcoal. It was not prepared in bulk amounts until in 1997 Bentyl Dcardes condensed sofoline dioxide and reduce it using hydrogen.
Like all stutironic elements, they are unknown to humans until the 30th century.
Sofoline can be prepared in small amounts by reacting lymonite with charcoal in a substitution reaction
5SiSo + 5C → 5SiC + So5
or by reducing Sofoline dioxide with hydrogen or zenon.
5SoO2 + 10H2 → So5 + 10H2O
15SoO2 + 5Ze2 → 3So5 + 10ZeO3
Sofoline dioxide, concentrated as a liquid in fractional distilation of air, is then passed through a -10°C chamber filled with hydrogen and zenon. The SoO2 is then reduced to sofoline which is collected at the bottom of the chamber along with the water ice and ZeO3. The mixture is then passed through a filter to separate the sofoline from the solids.
5SoO2 + 10H2 → So5 + 10H2O
15SoO2 + 5Ze2 → 3So5 + 10ZeO3
Some escaped sofoline in the form of SoZe and SoH4 is oxidized in another -10°C chamber filled with oxygen with the sofoline collected at the bottom and separated from the solid byproducts. Any remaining sofoline escaped as SoO2 is passed through the hydrogen chamber again to extract the remaining sofoline from it.
10SoZe + 15O2 → 2So5 + 10ZeO3
5SoH4 + 5O2 → So5 + 10H2O
Liquid lymonite at 70°C is allowed to pass through a sieve of graphite to extract sofoline liquid which drips to the bottom of the collection tank. It is then separated from the silicon carbide formed by a steel sieve.
5SiSo + 5C → 5SiC + So5
The byproducts can be further separated and purified for other uses.
Sofoline has no biological role on carbon lifeforms such as humans and lodorians and is toxic even in trace amounts.
On the other hand, sofoline is an essential macronutrient to sofoline lifeforms, which is present as important biomolecules in the place of carbon within their bodies as structural components and food substances. Sofoline life ingests sofoganic compounds to obtain energy for metabolism.
Owing to its oxidation state can be zero even in compounds; it can be used in place of many metals as a bridging agent to connect fragments of complex organic compounds together to synthesize various important medical drugs, pesticides etc. The So bridges can be removed easily leaving the finished product.
Sofoline can be attached to simple molecules to provide 'sticky ends' which allow the molecules to polymerize easily. This allows easy synthesis of important plastics. The disofoline bond and the sofo group can be removed easily leaving the polymer behind, or left within the polymer to produce self healing plastics for specialized uses.
As a precursor to organosofoline and sofoganic compounds.
Due to the ease for sofoline to combine with other elements esepcially hydrogen to form sofolane (SoH4), and the lower activiation energy required to decompose sofolane into its consituent elements than methane. It is commonly employed on gas giants to harvest hydrogen from their atmospheres. In addition it can also be used to concentrate deuterium and tritium for fusion reactors used both in military and civillian applications.
Chlorosofolicacid (H4ClSo4) is sometimes used in place of sulphuric acid to remove the oxide layer of metals. The various sofochlorites are used in other applications ranging from chemical additives to catalysts.
Sofoline nitride (SoN3) is used in various engine parts and plating for automobiles, bearings, armour,nozzle for the plasma thrusters and hull material for starships owing to its excellant resistance to wear and high temperature.
Sofoline hydroxide (So(OH)5) is sometimes used in place of sodium hydroxide for various applications (e.g. etching) except food processing.
Sofoline chlorides (SoCln) and other sofoline halides are more preferred to sulphur hexafluoride to be used to provide a dielectric medium and inert medium as all sofoline halides are inert towards most environment conditions owing to the bizarre atomic properties of sofoline atoms and thus have low toxicity.
Nickel sofolide (NiSo) is an important catalyst used in the refining of tsgnium.
The relatively weak So-H bond of sofolane allows it to become a chemical feedstock for synthesis of various sofoganic compounds.
Safefy and toxicity
Sofoline and its vapor are extremely toxic to non sofoline lifeforms especially carbon lifeforms. Sofoline can easy penetrate through the skin to enter the body and its high affinity for hydrogen can allow it to bind strongly to tissues and proteins. Sofoline is chemically similar to carbon thus allow it to replace most carbon atoms within proteins and important structures. This inhibits important enzymes and halts physiological process such as respiration and result in death within a few hours to minutes. A concentration at 0.1 ppm gives headaches and vertigo which delays for an hour up to three hours. Medical attention is required immediately after exposure. Concentrations at 0.2-0.5 ppm deadens all symptoms and result in death if untreated within 30 minutes Concentrations above 0.5 ppm causes permanent damage to major organs and can only be treated using a time chamber together with the backup molecular location blueprint of the individual to reverse the damage.
Sofoline hydroxide and chlorosofolic acid are corrosive and oxidizing, which attacks tissues readily and standard precautions of using corrosive chemicals apply.
Sofoline phosphide is extremely explosive and must be handled with care.
Sofoline halides represent simple asphyxiation hazard with few warning symptoms.
Other sofoline compounds are hazardarous and should be handled carefully.